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Stalking

What behaviours constitutes  Stalking?
The law specifies the instances when a particular course of conduct can be considered to be  stalking of another person.  Behaviour amounts to stalking when : T

  • It amounts to harassment of that person.
  • The acts or omissions involved are ones associated with stalking. 
  • The  person,  whose  course  of  conduct  it  is,  knows  or  ought  to  know  that  the  course  of  conduct.

The following   are   examples   of   acts   or omissions which amount to stalking :

  • Following a person.
  • Contacting, or attempting to contact a person by any means. 
  • Publishing,  by  any  means,  any  statement  or  other  material:   (a) relating  or  falsely  appearing  to  relate  to  a  person,  or   (b) falsely  appearing  to  originate  from  a  person
  • Monitoring   the   use   by a person   of   the   internet,   email,   or   any   other   form   of   electronic communication. 
  • Loitering in any place, whether public or private.
  • Interfering  with  any  property  in  the  possession  of  a  person.
  • Watching or spying on a person.

Facts and information: stalking

A  person found guilty  of  stalking  shall  be  liable  to  the  punishment  of  imprisonment  for  a  term  from   6  to  12  months  or  to  a  fine  (multa)  not  exceeding  €10,000,  or  to  both.        
 
Moreover,  this  punishment  may  be  increased  by  one  degree  if  it  is  committed  against  a  person  mentioned  in  Article  222(1) of the Criminal Code,  that  is,  against:

  • On  the  person  of  the  father,  mother,  or  any  other  legitimate  or  natural  ascendant,  or;
  • On  the  person  of  a  legitimate  and  natural  brother  or  sister,  or;
  • On the person of the husband or wife.
  • On  the  person  of  any  witness  or  referee  who  shall  have  given  evidence  or  an  opinion  in  any suit,  and  on  account  of  such  evidence.
  • On  any  person  of  a  child  under  nine  years  of  age.
  • On  the  person  of  whosoever  was  a  public  officer  or  was  lawful  charged  with  a  public  duty   or  is  was  an  officer  or  employee  of  a  body  corporate  established  by  law  and  the  offence   was  committed  because  of  that  person  having  exercised  his  functions
  • On   the   person   of   whosoever   was   exercising   his   lawful   duties   as   a private   guard,   a   specialised  private  guard  or  local  warden  in  accordance with  the  provisions  of  the  Private   Guards  and  Local  Wardens  Act.

 
The law also provides for an offence of stalking accompanied by fear of violence, in which case the punishment applicable is of 9 months to 5 years, or a fine of up to Eur 30,000 or both such fine and imprisonment; which punishment can also be increased by one degree if committed against one of the persons listed above.
 

Ask for assistance! Some victims are at risk of being targeted and victimized during and possibly after criminal proceedings. Such a risk can be effectively identified through an individual assessment carried out at the earliest opportunity.

The assessment should be carried out for all victims to determine whether they are at risk of secondary or repeat victimisation. The individual assessment will take into account the victim’s personal characteristics such as his or her age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, disability, residence status, communication difficulties, relationship to or dependence on the offender and previous experience of crime.

Victims identified as vulnerable to repeat victimisation are entitled to individual protection measures in accordance with their needs. These protection measures will be identified during the individual assessment. Protection measures can include protection orders, restraining orders, ‘garanzija personali’, bail conditions, and accommodation in a shelter.